The game is in urban management system which the dialectical thinking method to treat competition problems, including vibram global view, dynamic development ideas, information view, etc. <1> from the perspective of the theory of five fingers shoes urban management, the game can be reflected in two aspects mainly, make game and attend game. From microcosmic Angle, urban management is made between the game between the game behavior, management, From the macroscopic Angle, each city's main business was in the process of urban management game) might be game, in a wider range of economic game activities. Urban management game-theory relations between the reasons can be summarized as follows:
1, urban management in enterprise target inconsistent government
In cities, the government department of business activities less consider economic benefit of project, more attention is paid to the macro economic, social and environmental benefits. Such as nanjing subway construction in order to improve the urban traffic environment and improve residents in travel conditions as the goal, qinhuai river intergratedrenovation to environment comprehensive vibram five fingers management and improve the quality of living environment for residents. Its five fingers shoes benefits mainly through urban life satisfaction and comfort index promotion, travel time shorten and alleviate traffic jam phenomenon shows, etc. And consider different goals, they are concerned, profit, economic returns turnover such indicators. In order to achieve their goals, between the parties according to their respective to master the knowledge and information to take their game behavior, resulting in the game.
2, the city government management of enterprise information asymmetry
We know from the information economics, the real world outside with incomplete information, but also exists asymmetry of information distribution problems, namely the game both have such information is wrong. In urban management in the relationship between the game for the government, enterprises, often conceals its own situation, often with information superiority, the position is agent, The government is in the position. In urban management vibram five fingers activities, information asymmetry means rational enterprise can use its information advantage for their own interests, which happened adverse selection and moral hazard. For enterprises, urban management is a new urban construction and management concept, the city government is still in an attempt to fumble stage, lack of business enterprise more relevant experience and sometimes difficult to grasp the policy of the government, and public facilities of urban management of the investment risks, lack of clear grasp dare not five fingers rashly investment.
3 and the transformation process of economic vibram transformation of enterprise relationship between government
Between the government and enterprises in China in the past for a very long time that there is an executive order relation, because of the high concentration, vies resources of enterprise highly government control of the government, enterprises of policy measures timely market five fingers reaction and cannot be taken, caused the so-called "game absence.
From the city five fingers shoes game between the city management system risk
Pick to urban management: according to the problems in the game between the typical analysis based on new institutional economics, urban management methods of interpretation of the system risk, and explain the five fingers system risk is due to the urban management system, i.e. special conditions under the restriction of government pursues his own utility maximization and the society vibram five fingers as a whole by the deviation between the wealth maximization. And this kind of endogenous institutional defects not only with external competition, and effectively solve must transform the functions of government, and to promote urban management system innovation, effective remedy defects of city management system, thus avoiding the risk management system of city.
Keywords: urban management, Gaming, Operational risk, Institutional innovation
Urban management in urban management is the vibram five fingers popular and scholarly research in China, in many cities have a beneficial attempt. Although city management will manifest in a variety of forms, but its connotation and essence is realized in urban resources capital structure and capacity, in order to maximize the function and the optimization and urban construction, so as to achieve a virtuous circle of the input and output of the function of the city, and promote the city promotion society, economy and environment of the harmonious and sustainable development.
Risk management is the process of urban management and travel, narrow sense, it is mainly refers five fingers to the city management because of its own knowledge level, management experience and ability, and domestic and international situation, policy orientation, failed to achieve sustainable development of the city, urban assets targets at the risk of loss or state. The urban management risk factors, which can be roughly divided into urban social economic factors influencing factors, and the environment factors in . Among them, urban social contradictions of endogenous factor appears particularly outstanding, it is mainly for urban management system, i.e. special conditions under the restriction of government vibram pursues his own utility maximization and the society as a whole, the deviation between the wealth maximization and the endogenous system can effectively solve mere external competition, but must transform the functions of government, and to promote urban management system innovation, effective remedy defects of urban management. This paper from the city of several typical problems between the game analysis of risk management system.
A game of vibram urban management, relationship between five fingers shoes the reasons
However, the contemporary market socialism although to provide all the wonderful blueprint and its implementation possibility is suspect. SiDiGeLiCi thinks, market socialism congenital deficiency pattern, just a myth. This despite some one-sided, but also makes sense.
Before that, the contemporary market of socialist society and political goal is "alternative" capitalism. This five fingers shoes first they raised this question: from existing capitalist system leads to their ideal social economic mode of road to walk? Namely, depending on what political system and social forces, to ensure the economic system from existing to what they advocate the economic model of transformation and running smoothly? However, this is not clear modes to answer. Ignoring political system, the basic guarantee of "depreciate" this problem, it is the path of socialism mode of modern marketing major defects. Any society without certain coercive measures, want to let a vested interests, abandon oneself as the property owner voluntarily assets to pay in order to ensure the social income distribution of income is relatively equal, even the asset return society to implement public etc, it is only an unrealistic illusion. In capitalist system and capitalist production assets "social public discussions, actually YuHuMouPi equals.
From the various modes of operation, because some of the use of public administration, or the design problem due to its mode of market mechanism, end may effect and advocates want to achieve the original equal distribution of income, and even leads to the disintegration of public ownership. Example: in the public's romer's assets to securities to every adult citizenship for the purchase of his vibram five fingers income. This five fingers is a problem, if some vibram five fingers citizens vibram are buying the bankruptcy of the enterprise, the citizens of securities, they would be naught life of the benefits do not will be lost? So, the distribution of social equality not discount? Again, if the public assets, advocate the "in" is completely under capitalism marketing form. So, five fingers shoes people not to its actual operation for the progress of all-round concerns -- capitalist mode of operation could eventually lead to the disintegration of public ownership, Even if it existed, because the market operation completely with economic activity subject (enterprise and individual) intense conflicts of interests, also can make it cannot vibram achieve equitable distribution function.
However, we still can't five fingers deny the contemporary theories of socialism market value. At least, they left for future practice of thought, material selection of reference frame.
In contemporary socialism market capitalism, on the basis vibram of the existing achievements they further requirements are full of democracy, the extent of decentralization and respect for the individual freedom activity, and this, of course, the right to have five fingers the system guarantee, especially need vibram five fingers any privilege in economic activities of the democratic political system. From the point of view of economic efficiency, also have such requirements with institutional economics, a country of words based system arrangement, system structure, system framework, and system environment and system to decide its economic performance. Anyhow, the new mode of socialism market to pursue some form of democracy, not only economic democracy and political democracy, or as the starting point, or as a mode of the target.
Six, strong utopia
In comparison of socialism market economic system has an important position in mutual promotion and development (both), and in the socialist movement and history should not be neglected in possession of a page. It shows that socialism market economy can be combined with the development, scientific socialism theory, Its theory and experiment show that not only the Soviet socialist planned economy, but a pattern according to different conditions in different Settings. In addition, the market is that the world of socialist development of socialism, the general trend of transient is contemporary society "in effective economic system of socialist value of a feasible way", vibram is "the revival of socialist opportunity." Roosevalt f. (1992), contemporary market socialism is in Russian disintegration, the socialist movement at a low background, in the heart of western capitalist lifted the socialist banner, to explore how in capitalist society and realize the socialist problem, it five fingers will greatly encouraged and unity of the western left-wing strength five fingers shoes and the broad masses of the people. Only, its meaning is very important.
However, the contemporary market socialism although to provide all the wonderful blueprint and its implementation possibility is suspect. SiDiGeLiCi thinks, market socialism congenital five fingers shoes deficiency pattern, just a myth. This despite some one-sided, but also makes sense.
Before that, the contemporary market of socialist society and political goal is "alternative" capitalism. This first they raised this vibram five fingers question: from existing capitalist system leads to their ideal social economic mode of road to walk? Namely, depending on what political system and social forces, to ensure the economic system from existing to what they advocate the economic model of transformation and running smoothly? However, this is not clear modes to answer. Ignoring political system, the basic guarantee of "depreciate" this problem, it is the path of socialism mode of modern marketing major defects. Any society without certain coercive measures, want to let a vested interests, abandon oneself as the property owner voluntarily assets to pay in order to ensure the social income distribution of income is relatively equal, even the asset return society to implement public etc, it is only an unrealistic illusion. In capitalist system and capitalist production assets "social public discussions, actually YuHuMouPi equals.
Five, the highlight of political democracy and economic democracy
Call of socialist democracy is contemporary market and characteristics. Contemporary market socialism to capitalism is due to the social alienation detest just urged improvement or replace capitalism, therefore, Shouting "democracy and equality, and freedom is the basic characteristics,".
In the 1990s mentioned four modes, basically "for true democracy laid solid foundation. Romer's and Yang grams of model and larger highlighted the degree of social justice, but also conducive to the realization of social and political democracy. Employee management mode is more advantageous to the democratic politics "extends from the economic field. Miller (d. Miller, 1994, P252) quite satisfiedly say, his socialist market economic mode for industrial democracy (democratic) provides the best chance, "democratic rights, this kind of special industrial democracy has two aspects of value: people can control their work and living environment, it is a good thing; at the same time, it is more widely provides training and stimulate democracy."
In the modern market socialism treatise, there are many is point-blank dubbed "democracy" title, outstanding democracy. For vibram five fingers example, robin's writings headline "economic democracy: feasible socialist political" title, west of the work in enterprises as the market on five fingers shoes the basis of socialist democracy, "says the writings of jimna carter economic democracy, the real can realize socialist, J • KeHeng and Rogers article simply call the joint democratic". In addition, the scheme, such as brock "democracy" has become the implementation of the "no class his power of capitalism" basic premise.
Assuming a mode of jimna carter safeguard citizens free legal state of vibram existence, through the central and provincial five fingers shoes and municipal elections produce various democratic institutions to guarantee citizens freedom, according to the market orientation of democratic plans to extend investment fund, will plan and market two sets of mechanism in "democracy" field. So, the democratic political value, and has also has profound connotation of "economy". In the electoral system five fingers in brock pounce. He pointed out that the capitalist countries campaign is private funds by providing the richest of vibram economy and the campaign to manipulate and control effect of the election, therefore, must vote system reform, the measures are provided vibram five fingers to all political institutions five fingers in the media, the public funds to provide free time, private candidate political contributions shall not exceed 100 dollars, a general election registration and weekend election, etc.